hellenistic culture definition

1. of or pertaining to Greek civilization of the Mediterranean region and SW Asia from the death of Alexander the Great through the 1st century b.c., characterized by the blending of Greek and foreign cultures. While the culture of ancient Greece was disseminated East and West, the Greeks adopted elements of eastern culture and religion, especially Zoroastrianism and Mithraism. Large numbers of his coins have been found in India, and he seems to have reigned in Gandhara as well as western Punjab. In some fields Hellenistic culture thrived, particularly in its preservation of the past. The reason for the production of this translation seems to be that many of the Alexandrian Jews had lost the ability to speak Hebrew and Aramaic.[81]. The founders of Stoicism—Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, and Chrysippus—were active in the third and second centuries B.C. 229–237. Epigraphic evidence also shows extensive Hellenistic influence in the interior. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. He may have been attempting to Hellenize the region and unify his empire and the Jewish resistance to this eventually led to an escalation of violence. Hellenistic age - Hellenistic age - The arts: Hellenistic sculpture, often of a very high quality, is notable for its variety. Antipater was made regent of the Empire, and the two kings were moved to Macedon. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. 370 BC), the Achaean League (est. An unknown engineer developed the torsion-spring catapult (c. 360 BC) and Dionysios of Alexandria designed a repeating ballista, the Polybolos. IDEOLOGY: DEFINITION AND STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (IDEOLOGY WORLDVIEWS Book 3) (English Edition) 2,99€ 2: White privilege definition a false ideology created T-Shirt: 18,49€ 3: Hellenistic History and Culture (Hellenistic Culture and Society, Band 9) 29,81€ 4: Das Kapital im 21. They enjoyed Greek theater, and Greek art influenced Parthian art. While victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son, thus legitimising the Greco-Bactrian dynasty. Sparta's bid for supremacy was crushed at the Battle of Sellasia (222 BC) by the Achaean league and Macedon, who restored the power of the ephors. [29] The Achean league was able to drive out the Macedonians from the Peloponnese and free Corinth, which duly joined the league. [105] The final Greek resistance came in 88 BC, when King Mithridates of Pontus rebelled against Rome, captured Roman held Anatolia, and massacred up to 100,000 Romans and Roman allies across Asia Minor. The apotheosis of rulers also brought the idea of divinity down to earth. The Hellenistic cities were distinguished by stately architectural ensembles, in which the buildings harmonized with one another and with the surrounding landscape. [2] The Greek-language word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) was originally the widely recognized name of Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived.[3]. The royal palace (basileion) also came into its own during the Hellenistic period, the first extant example being the massive 4th-century villa of Cassander at Vergina. Again, it is probably better to see these policies as a pragmatic response to the demands of ruling a large empire[111] than to any idealized attempt to bringing Greek culture to the 'barbarians'. Carte de la Macédoine et du monde égéen vers 200 av. One of the principal cults was that of Zeus Hypsistos, the supreme god, who was identified with such gods as the Phoenician Baal, the Egyptian Ammon, the Babylonian Bel, and the Jewish Yahweh. Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan Empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). During a decade of campaigning, Alexander conquered the whole Persian Empire, overthrowing the Persian king Darius III. [78] Nabatean art shows Greek influences and paintings have been found depicting Dionysian scenes. When Alexander the Great died (10 June 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which was composed of many essentially autonomous territories called satraps. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization[5] which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work that dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death. [1700–10] The Ptolemies used the smaller African elephant. [120] The worship of Alexander was also popular, as in the long lived cult at Erythrae and of course, at Alexandria, where his tomb was located. Macedonian and Hellenistic monarchs were expected to lead their armies on the field, along with a group of privileged aristocratic companions or friends (hetairoi, philoi) which dined and drank with the king and acted as his advisory council. During the reign of the Artaxiads, Armenia went through a period of hellenization. Once the Second Punic War had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. Though the Nabateans originally worshipped their traditional gods in symbolic form such as stone blocks or pillars, during the Hellenistic period they began to identify their gods with Greek gods and depict them in figurative forms influenced by Greek sculpture. Hellenism, have been widely used in various contexts; a notable such use is in Culture and Anarchy by Matthew Arnold, where Hellenism is used in contrast with Hebraism.[14]. [7] This mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Reliefs on the monument also show the Numidians had adopted Greco-Macedonian type armor and shields for their soldiers.[102]. The setting up of ruler cults was more based on the systematized honors offered to the kings (sacrifice, proskynesis, statues, altars, hymns) which put them on par with the gods (isotheism) than on actual belief of their divine nature. Nicomedes also invited the Celtic Galatians into Anatolia as mercenaries, and they later turned on his son Prusias I, who defeated them in battle. The hellenization of the Nabateans occurred relatively late in comparison to the surrounding regions. Cicero was educated in Athens and Mark Antony in Rhodes. [22] He was defeated in 288 BC when Lysimachus of Thrace and Pyrrhus of Epirus invaded Macedon on two fronts, and quickly carved up the kingdom for themselves. In the aftermath of this victory, Antigonus took the title of king (basileus) and bestowed it on his son Demetrius Poliorcetes, the rest of the Diadochi soon followed suit. Hierax carved off most of Seleucid Anatolia for himself, but was defeated, along with his Galatian allies, by Attalus I of Pergamon who now also claimed kingship. Hellenistic culture exhibited more strikingly than classical Greek culture the differences between the life of the hellenized upper social strata and that of the urban and rural poor, among whom local traditions were preserved for a longer period of time. The Achaeans refused and declared war on Rome. Hinüber (2000), pp. John Boardman, "The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity", Princeton University Press, 1993, p.130: "The Indian king's grandson, Asoka, was a convert to Buddhism. Impressive scientific innovations were made in Alexandria where the Greek Eratosthenes computed the circumference of the earth, … Antigonus II Gonatas invaded Thrace in the summer of 277 and defeated a large force of 18,000 Gauls. The culture that took shape in the Hellenistic world was not uniform. Abundant traces of Hellenism continued under the Parthian empire. F.W. Throughout the Hellenistic world, these Greco-Macedonian colonists considered themselves by and large superior to the native "barbarians" and excluded most non-Greeks from the upper echelons of courtly and government life. They were defeated by Seleucus I in the 'battle of the Elephants', but were still able to establish a Celtic territory in central Anatolia. the Tobiads). Lysippus, Alexander’s favourite sculptor, had produced a seminal statue, the Apoxyomenos (also called The Scraper), a figure of an athlete standing with one arm extended and the other pulled … After 278 BC the Odrysians had a strong competitor in the Celtic Kingdom of Tylis ruled by the kings Comontorius and Cavarus, but in 212 BC they conquered their enemies and destroyed their capital. His son, Zipoetes I of Bithynia maintained this autonomy against Lysimachus and Seleucus I, and assumed the title of king (basileus) in 297 BC. The Hellenistic period was a time when Greek culture spread throughout and influenced Southwest Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean regions. In 352 BC he annexed Thessaly and Magnesia. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). The Hellenistic cities, notably Alexandria in Egypt, Dura-Europos, Pergamum, Priene, and Seleucia, were generally laid out in a gridiron plan; their visual character was in large part determined by large colonnades that ran along the main streets and by one- and two-story colonnaded stoas, which either stood independently around the perimeter of the agora or formed part of a building. Eumenes II turned Pergamon into a centre of culture and science by establishing the library of Pergamum which was said to be second only to the library of Alexandria[69] with 200,000 volumes according to Plutarch. Illyrians on the coast of the Adriatic were under the effects and influence of Hellenisation and some tribes adopted Greek, becoming bilingual[31][32][33] due to their proximity to the Greek colonies in Illyria. In the Hellenistic period, there was much continuity in Greek religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same rites were practiced as before. 3. following or resembling Greek usage. However, Athens had now lost her political freedom, and Hellenistic philosophy is a reflection of this new difficult period. [89], Several references in Indian literature praise the knowledge of the Yavanas or the Greeks. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Meanwhile, Lysimachus took over Ionia, Seleucus took Cilicia, and Ptolemy captured Cyprus. Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others. Hellenist (Ancient Greek: Ἑλληνιστής, Hellēnistēs), have been attested since ancient times,[12] it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the mid-19th century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus (History of Hellenism), coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. As far as the Indian subcontinent, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was broad and far-reaching, and had effects for several centuries following the forays of Alexander the Great. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt though Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest. 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